Linux is a free and open-source operating system, based on the Linux kernel. It was initially released in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Now it is maintained by Linux Contributors from all around the world. Due to its open-source and community nature, anyone can contribute to Linux source code.
Here in this article, we are mainly going to discuss What is Linux and Introduction to Linux Distribution?
What is Linux?
Linux is a user-friendly operating system that comprises of Bootloaders, Kernel, Daemons, Shells, Graphical Servers, Desktop Environments and applications.
It is mainly an Internet-based operating system that is practically everywhere – from phones to cars, from refrigerators to stock exchange. Do you know Android is based on Linux Kernel?
It can also embed supercomputers and run on desktops & servers. All the major hosting companies use Linux on their servers. Thus, Linux is often considered the most trusted operating system in the world.
Introduction to Linux Distribution
A Linux Distribution is a customised operating system tweaked as per user requirement. A Linux Distribution typically based on Linux Kernel, an open-source Unix-like system kernel or sometimes a Package management system, and automated operating system.
Linux users can download these Linux Distributions which are available in a variety of systems depending on their requirement. Most popular Linux Operating System is Ubuntu. It is the best alternative to the Windows operating system.
Major Linux Distributions
Linux can be associated with different software packages to form a distribution. However, we can broadly classify them in the following categories:
Debian-Based: Debian-based Linux Distributions was first designed in the year 1993. It is one of the oldest Linux distributions and later serves as a benchmark for other renowned distributions that use .deb packages. Core Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and SteamOS are few examples.
These distributions are universally accepted and support almost all CPU architecture. Most of the Debian-based distributions uses two package managers – Apt and Aptitude.
RMP-based: The RMP-based Linux Distribution was first designed by Red Hat in the year 1997. An RPM package comprises of an arbitrary set of files which are mostly “binary RPMs” that contains the compiled version of any specific software package.
With GPG and MD5, RPM packages can be verified cryptographically. Some of the popular RPM-based Linux distributions are RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), CentOS, Fedora, OpenSuse and Mageia.
Other distinctive Linux Distributions
As discussed before a Linux distribution can be of any sorts depending upon the users’ requirement. Here is a list of some noteworthy distributions:
Arch Linux: Arch Linux uses Pacman, their personalised package manager. The distribution doesn’t come with Graphical Installers and uses terminals to manifest the whole installation process.
Slackware Linux: Powered by simple codes, Slackware is the oldest Linux distribution that is still in operation. The distribution software packages are compiled by either system managers or its regular users as it lacks a package manager.
KDE: KDE is often considered as the most advanced desktop manager. It comprises of a wide range of applications which produces a comprehensive desktop environment.
Gnome: Gnome is arguably the most popular Linux distribution mainly because it can integrate plug-ins to develop extensive applications. Gnome is an open-source distribution that is ideal for older hardware configurations.
Other honourable mentions: Cinnamon, Xfce, LXDE, Unity and Gentoo.
Linux is a smartly managed operating system that can be easily installed and managed. With the help of proper distribution, the users can easily explore their potentialities and discover new traits to improve the software development industry.